England

Useful informations
LocationBritish Islands
NeighborhoodWales, Scotland, France, Ireland,
Area130.279 km2
Density407 persons/km2
CapitalLondon
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP; £)

England is a country located in the British Islands and is separated from Continental Europe by the North Sea, through the English Channel. It is bordered by Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. On the other side of the English Channel there is France, while Ireland and Northern Ireland are separated from England by the Irish Sea. England also has access to the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is part of the United Kingdom and has over 100 smaller islands in its possession.

England covers an area of 130.279 km2, has a densityof 407 persons/km2 and has its capital in the city of London, which hosts about 10.000.000 people (without the metropolitan area). The country’s national anthem is called “God save the King/Queen” and the composer is unknowned but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made. England is organized as a part of a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the current monarch. Its total population is about 54.316.600 persons. Other important english citizens are livingabroad in countries such as the United States of America (between 26 and 49 million), Australia (7.300.000), Canada (6.570.000), Ireland (between 300.000 and 1.000.000) or New Zeeland (between 50.000 and 285.000). The official currency in England is the British PoundSterling(GBP).

The archeological data indicates that England was colonized long before the rest of the British territory, thanks to its hospitable climate. The first mention of the island comes from a manual from the 6th century BC, and it indicates that trade links with the continent already existed long before. Latin writers such as Pliny the Elder and DiodorusSiculus mentioned about the commercial trades in England, but there were few reports on populations. Tacitus wrote that there were no major linguistic differences between the peoples of Britain and northern Gaul and noted that the various Breton nations shared the same physicalcharacteristics with their neighbours on the continent.

Since the end of the 8th century, the Viking raids became more and more frequent. The arrival of the Vikings changed the political geography and the social system in England.

Towards the end of the 10th century, England was again hit by the Danish attacks. Canute the Great reigned over England, Denmark and Norway.

The English Middle Ages were characterized by civil wars, revolts, in court intrigues and dynastic struggles in France.

In 1776, the uprising of the American colonies resulted in the independence of the United States of America. Against the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire, Britain lead a struggle from which it came out victorious following the battle of Waterloo. In 1800, the United Kingdom was formed by the union of Great Britain and Ireland.

Britain participated actively in the First World War, after which it came out economically weakened.

Since the late 20th century, the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England and Wales continues to exist as a jurisdiction within the United Kingdom. Devolution has stimulated a greater emphasis on a more English-specific identity and patriotism. There is no devolved English government, but an attempt to create a similar system on a sub-regional basis was rejected by referendum.

England occupies the central and southern part of the island of Britain and is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales, the Irish Sea and the Celtic Sea, while in the east the country is washed by the North Sea. It is separated from continental Europe by the English Channel.

The main rivers are: the Thames (flowing through London), the Severn, the Trent and the Humber. The lakes are concentrated in the Lake District mountainous tourist region, in the northwest. Despite the name, just one of the lakes is called “lake”, the Bassenthwaite Lake, while the others are called “meres” (ponds), “waters” (water), “tarns” (lakes) or “reservoirs” (artificial lakes) .

England is also amazing for its fabulous nature. The sights of its fields, particularly lovable in spring and autumn, is an unforgettable experience, as well as the view of the scenic and rugged coastline of Cornwall or the beaches of South West England. From the gardens of Kent to the lands of the Lake District, England doesn’t let you get tired of the landscape due to its rich and varied morphology of different suggestions.

The climate in England, varies from day to day and across the country as a whole. Perhaps the two words that best describe England and the weather forecast are “changing” and “unpredictable”. Overall, the climate is temperate with humid hot summers and wet and cool winters. Known for its temperate maritime climate, England has rarely experienced temperatures below 0°C. As we all know, at least for general culture, the English climate is also characterized by abundant rainfall throughout the year.

England has a very varied vegetation, strongly influenced by centuries of human activity, which has built an original landscape. Most of its territory, except for the pads, for the extended moorlands of the northern and western regions and the wetlands, was once covered with deciduous forests where the oak predominated. Of these original forests only short stretches still remain nowadays, especially in the south, making up 11,7% of the national territory (2005).

The red deer lives in southern England and is the only large mammal that is part of the endemic fauna, in addition to the wild ponies of the New Forest. The practice of hunting caused the extinction of the wolf and the wild boar, whose populations were once numerous. Among the small mammals there can be found: foxes, badgers, otters, stoats, weasels, marten, skunk, red squirrel, mole and hare.

In general, the history of the English language is divided into three sections: Old English, Medieval English and Modern English.

The early modern English is seen to be appeared around 1500 and to be continued to the present day. The grammatical roots, pronouns and prepositions of German and Norwegian origins, as well as for the French and in general, Latin influences, combined with the rich harmonization of vowel sounds, describes pretty muchtoday’s English.

The most practiced religion in England is the Christian faith and the official church and state is the Church of England.

Protestantism arose in the 16th century after a schism with the Catholic Church because of a religious and political movement known as the Protestant Reformation, derived from the Lutheran and Calvinist ideas.

On UNESCO’s list there can be found 17 cultural objectives and 3 natural objectives in England:

Cultural Objectives

  • Blenheim Palace
  • Canterbury Cathedral, SaintAugustine’s Abbey, and Saint Martin’s Church
  • City of Bath
  • Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape
  • Derwent Valley Mills
  • Durham Castle and Cathedral
  • Frontiers of the Roman Empire
  • Historic Town of Saint George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda
  • Ironbridge Gorge
  • Liverpool, Maritime Mercantile City
  • Maritime Greenwich
  • Palace of Westminster and Westminster Abbey including Saint Margaret’s Church
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Saltaire
  • Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites
  • Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey
  • Tower of London

Natural Objectives

  • Dorset and East Devon Coast
  • Gough and Inaccessible Islands
  • Henderson Island ( Pitcairn Islands )

With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combinedtotal.England taken as a unit and measured against internationalstates has the fourth largestpopulation in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population in the world. With a density of 407 people per square kilometre, it would be the second most densely populated country in the European Union after Malta.

The English economy is one of the most important in the world, with an average GDP per capita of 22,907£. Regarded as a mixed market economy, England has always adopted the principles of the free market and still maintains an advanced infrastructure social assistance. The official currency in England is the sterling pound, whose currency code is GBP. The tax system in England is very competitive compared to much of the rest of Europe, beginning in 2009, the basic personal tax rate is 20% on the taxable income which goes up to 37,400£ and 40% for any additional extra gain on top of that amount.

The excellent state of the English economy has also been confirmed in the employment field, where the unemployment rate is 5.7%, and the United Kingdom is one of the first European countries with the lowest number of people looking for employment. The lowest unemployment rate is considered a main element of the success of the British economy. Unfortunately, even today there are various social groups of people, having no competence or any notion of economy, who are discouraging others to cometo this wonderful country.

England boasts an extensive network of national and international flight connections. The largest airport is London Heathrow, which is the busiest airport in the world, measured by the number of international passengers in transit. Other major airports are: Manchester Airport, London Stansted, Luton and Birmingham airport.

The London Underground is very often used to quickly move from one part of the city to another. In fact, the metro is divided into 11 lines and 270 stations with a total of 402 km of track, serving an average of three million passengers a day with a total of a billion passengers a year.

The network of London buses, operated by London Buses, a subsidiary of Transport for London, is one of the largest in Europe. The buses, which are characterized by their famous redcolour, can be of two different types: with just a story (the so-called single-decker) or with two-story (the famous double-decker).

To move from one place to another in London it is recommended to use bicycles or taxi service

People

Discover some of the most popular persons who live / lived in England.

Jane Austen

She is known principally for her five major novels which interpret, critique and comment upon the life of the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century. Her most highly praised novel during her own lifetime was Pride and Prejudice which was her second published novel. Her plots often reflect upon the dependence […]

Elizabeth Queen

Queen Elizabeth II

She is also Queen of 12 countries that have become independent since her accession: Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. At birth, Elizabeth was the third in line to the British throne, after her […]

Chaplin

Charlie Chaplin

Chaplin became a worldwide icon through his screen persona “The Tramp” and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, and encompassed both adulation and controversy.Famous for […]

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Culinary

Discover some of the traditional receips from England.

London Gin

London gin is obtained exclusively from ethanol of agricultural origin with a maximum methanol content of 5 grams per hectolitre of 100% ABV equivalent, whose flavour is introduced exclusively through the re-distillation in traditional stills of ethanol in the presence of all the natural plant materials used, the resultant distillate of which is at least 70% […]

Fairycakes

Spiced Farmhouse Fairy Cakes

Ingredients: 3/4 cup sugar 1/2 cup margarine or butter 2 eggs 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon ginger 1 and 1/2 cups flour 1/4 cup cupcake decorations 1 teaspoon cardamom   Steps: Preheat the oven to 185°C. Put some 18 cupcake papers on a baking sheet or place them in a muffin pan. In a medium […]

English Cottage Pie

English Cottage Pie

Ingredients: 400g of ground beef 800g of potatoes 1 carrot ½ onion 1 celery 2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce 3 tablespoons tomato paste A sprig of thyme 200g of frozen peas 400ml of broth 2 egg yolks 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil 50g of butter 120ml of milk 1 pinch of salt Pepper as needed […]

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