Philip II of Macedon

We do know that this personality has no connection to the modern Slavic Macedonians. The only reason it appears as a personality of this country is because of the various theories claiming that the ancient Macedonians were a different kind of tribe, that were eventually Hellenized by ancient Greeks.

In 359 BC, his brother dies and Philip II is named regent heir to the throne at the age of 24 years old. In the next 3 years, Philip II was noted for his ambition, determination and authority both in domestic politics and foreign ones. He also moved the kingdom’s capital from Aegae to Pella.

Philip II’s first military campaigns were directed against the Paeonians and the Illyrians; also he aimed for the gold field of mount Pangea in Thracia, where he founded the city of Philippi. His victorious campaigns were the result of a good prepared army because of mandatory recruitments imposed from a young age. Every region of Macedonia was contributing with three different types of units: cavalry, heavy and light infrantry. The force of the army was the result of the famous macedonian phalanx.

In august 338 BC, Athens and Thebes have allied and fought together against the Macedonians at Chaeronea but due to the strategic genius of Alexander, Philip II obtains the victory, which meant, essentially the end of Greek independence.

Philip II’s was assassinated at the wedding of his daughter, Cleopatra, by the captain of his guards, Pausanias in 336 BC. His former wife, Olympias was no stranger to this event. According to some opinions, she might have ordered his assassination. After Philip II’s death, his son, Alexander III of Macedon becomes the new king of the Macedonian Empire.

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